

Table of Contents
Geometry
Point
Curve
LineString
Surface
Polygon
GeometryCollection
MultiPoint
MultiCurve
MultiLineString
MultiSurface
MultiPolygon
Geometry
Functions
MySQL supports spatial extensions to allow the generation, storage,
and analysis of geographic features. Before MySQL 5.0.16, these
features are available for MyISAM
tables only. As
of MySQL 5.0.16, InnoDB
, NDB
,
BDB
, and ARCHIVE
also support
spatial features. (However, the ARCHIVE
engine
does not support indexing, so spatial columns in
ARCHIVE
columns cannot be indexed. MySQL Cluster
also does not support indexing of spatial columns.)
This chapter covers the following topics:
The basis of these spatial extensions in the OpenGIS geometry model
Data formats for representing spatial data
How to use spatial data in MySQL
Use of indexing for spatial data
MySQL differences from the OpenGIS specification
Additional resources
The Open Geospatial Consortium publishes the OpenGIS® Simple Features Specifications For SQL, a document that proposes several conceptual ways for extending an SQL RDBMS to support spatial data. This specification is available from the OGC Web site at http://www.opengis.org/docs/99049.pdf.
If you have questions or concerns about the use of the spatial extensions to MySQL, you can discuss them in the GIS forum: http://forums.mysql.com/list.php?23.
MySQL implements spatial extensions following the specification of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). This is an international consortium of more than 250 companies, agencies, and universities participating in the development of publicly available conceptual solutions that can be useful with all kinds of applications that manage spatial data. The OGC maintains a Web site at http://www.opengis.org/.
In 1997, the Open Geospatial Consortium published the OpenGIS® Simple Features Specifications For SQL, a document that proposes several conceptual ways for extending an SQL RDBMS to support spatial data. This specification is available from the OGC Web site at http://www.opengis.org/docs/99049.pdf. It contains additional information relevant to this chapter.
MySQL implements a subset of the SQL with Geometry Types environment proposed by OGC. This term refers to an SQL environment that has been extended with a set of geometry types. A geometryvalued SQL column is implemented as a column that has a geometry type. The specification describe a set of SQL geometry types, as well as functions on those types to create and analyze geometry values.
A geographic feature is anything in the world that has a location. A feature can be:
An entity. For example, a mountain, a pond, a city.
A space. For example, a postcode area, the tropics.
A definable location. For example, a crossroad, as a particular place where two streets intersect.
Some documents use the term geospatial feature to refer to geographic features.
Geometry is another word that denotes a geographic feature. Originally the word geometry meant measurement of the earth. Another meaning comes from cartography, referring to the geometric features that cartographers use to map the world.
This chapter uses all of these terms synonymously: geographic feature, geospatial feature, feature, or geometry. Here, the term most commonly used is geometry, defined as a point or an aggregate of points representing anything in the world that has a location.
Geometry
Point
Curve
LineString
Surface
Polygon
GeometryCollection
MultiPoint
MultiCurve
MultiLineString
MultiSurface
MultiPolygon
The set of geometry types proposed by OGC's SQL with Geometry Types environment is based on the OpenGIS Geometry Model. In this model, each geometric object has the following general properties:
It is associated with a Spatial Reference System, which describes the coordinate space in which the object is defined.
It belongs to some geometry class.
The geometry classes define a hierarchy as follows:
Geometry
(noninstantiable)
Point
(instantiable)
Curve
(noninstantiable)
LineString
(instantiable)
Line
LinearRing
Surface
(noninstantiable)
Polygon
(instantiable)
GeometryCollection
(instantiable)
MultiPoint
(instantiable)
MultiCurve
(noninstantiable)
MultiLineString
(instantiable)
MultiSurface
(noninstantiable)
MultiPolygon
(instantiable)
It is not possible to create objects in noninstantiable classes. It is possible to create objects in instantiable classes. All classes have properties, and instantiable classes may also have assertions (rules that define valid class instances).
Geometry
is the base class. It is an abstract
class. The instantiable subclasses of
Geometry
are restricted to zero, one, and
twodimensional geometric objects that exist in twodimensional
coordinate space. All instantiable geometry classes are defined
so that valid instances of a geometry class are topologically
closed (that is, all defined geometries include their boundary).
The base Geometry
class has subclasses for
Point
, Curve
,
Surface
, and
GeometryCollection
:
Point
represents zerodimensional
objects.
Curve
represents onedimensional objects,
and has subclass LineString
, with
subsubclasses Line
and
LinearRing
.
Surface
is designed for twodimensional
objects and has subclass Polygon
.
GeometryCollection
has specialized zero,
one, and twodimensional collection classes named
MultiPoint
,
MultiLineString
, and
MultiPolygon
for modeling geometries
corresponding to collections of Points
,
LineStrings
, and
Polygons
, respectively.
MultiCurve
and
MultiSurface
are introduced as abstract
superclasses that generalize the collection interfaces to
handle Curves
and
Surfaces
.
Geometry
, Curve
,
Surface
, MultiCurve
, and
MultiSurface
are defined as noninstantiable
classes. They define a common set of methods for their
subclasses and are included for extensibility.
Point
, LineString
,
Polygon
,
GeometryCollection
,
MultiPoint
,
MultiLineString
, and
MultiPolygon
are instantiable classes.
Geometry
is the root class of the hierarchy.
It is a noninstantiable class but has a number of properties
that are common to all geometry values created from any of the
Geometry
subclasses. These properties are
described in the following list. Particular subclasses have
their own specific properties, described later.
Geometry Properties
A geometry value has the following properties:
Its type. Each geometry belongs to one of the instantiable classes in the hierarchy.
Its SRID, or Spatial Reference Identifier. This value identifies the geometry's associated Spatial Reference System that describes the coordinate space in which the geometry object is defined.
In MySQL, the SRID value is just an integer associated with the geometry value. All calculations are done assuming Euclidean (planar) geometry.
Its coordinates in its Spatial Reference System, represented as doubleprecision (eightbyte) numbers. All nonempty geometries include at least one pair of (X,Y) coordinates. Empty geometries contain no coordinates.
Coordinates are related to the SRID. For example, in different coordinate systems, the distance between two objects may differ even when objects have the same coordinates, because the distance on the planar coordinate system and the distance on the geocentric system (coordinates on the Earth's surface) are different things.
Its interior, boundary, and exterior.
Every geometry occupies some position in space. The exterior of a geometry is all space not occupied by the geometry. The interior is the space occupied by the geometry. The boundary is the interface between the geometry's interior and exterior.
Its MBR (Minimum Bounding Rectangle), or Envelope. This is the bounding geometry, formed by the minimum and maximum (X,Y) coordinates:
((MINX MINY, MAXX MINY, MAXX MAXY, MINX MAXY, MINX MINY))
Whether the value is simple
or nonsimple. Geometry
values of types (LineString
,
MultiPoint
,
MultiLineString
) are either simple or
nonsimple. Each type determines its own assertions for
being simple or nonsimple.
Whether the value is closed
or not closed. Geometry
values of types (LineString
,
MultiString
) are either closed or not
closed. Each type determines its own assertions for being
closed or not closed.
Whether the value is empty
or nonempty A geometry is
empty if it does not have any points. Exterior, interior,
and boundary of an empty geometry are not defined (that is,
they are represented by a NULL
value). An
empty geometry is defined to be always simple and has an
area of 0.
Its dimension. A geometry can have a dimension of –1, 0, 1, or 2:
–1 for an empty geometry.
0 for a geometry with no length and no area.
1 for a geometry with nonzero length and zero area.
2 for a geometry with nonzero area.
Point
objects have a dimension of zero.
LineString
objects have a dimension of 1.
Polygon
objects have a dimension of 2.
The dimensions of MultiPoint
,
MultiLineString
, and
MultiPolygon
objects are the same as the
dimensions of the elements they consist of.
A Point
is a geometry that represents a
single location in coordinate space.
Point
Examples
Imagine a largescale map of the world with many cities. A
Point
object could represent each city.
On a city map, a Point
object could
represent a bus stop.
Point
Properties
Xcoordinate value.
Ycoordinate value.
Point
is defined as a zerodimensional
geometry.
The boundary of a Point
is the empty set.
A Curve
is a onedimensional geometry,
usually represented by a sequence of points. Particular
subclasses of Curve
define the type of
interpolation between points. Curve
is a
noninstantiable class.
Curve
Properties
A Curve
has the coordinates of its
points.
A Curve
is defined as a onedimensional
geometry.
A Curve
is simple if it does not pass
through the same point twice.
A Curve
is closed if its start point is
equal to its endpoint.
The boundary of a closed Curve
is empty.
The boundary of a nonclosed Curve
consists of its two endpoints.
A Curve
that is simple and closed is a
LinearRing
.
A LineString
is a Curve
with linear interpolation between points.
LineString
Examples
On a world map, LineString
objects could
represent rivers.
In a city map, LineString
objects could
represent streets.
LineString
Properties
A LineString
has coordinates of segments,
defined by each consecutive pair of points.
A LineString
is a Line
if it consists of exactly two points.
A LineString
is a
LinearRing
if it is both closed and
simple.
A Surface
is a twodimensional geometry. It
is a noninstantiable class. Its only instantiable subclass is
Polygon
.
Surface
Properties
A Surface
is defined as a twodimensional
geometry.
The OpenGIS specification defines a simple
Surface
as a geometry that consists of a
single “patch” that is associated with a single
exterior boundary and zero or more interior boundaries.
The boundary of a simple Surface
is the
set of closed curves corresponding to its exterior and
interior boundaries.
A Polygon
is a planar
Surface
representing a multisided geometry.
It is defined by a single exterior boundary and zero or more
interior boundaries, where each interior boundary defines a hole
in the Polygon
.
Polygon
Examples
On a region map, Polygon
objects could
represent forests, districts, and so on.
Polygon
Assertions
The boundary of a Polygon
consists of a
set of LinearRing
objects (that is,
LineString
objects that are both simple
and closed) that make up its exterior and interior
boundaries.
A Polygon
has no rings that cross. The
rings in the boundary of a Polygon
may
intersect at a Point
, but only as a
tangent.
A Polygon
has no lines, spikes, or
punctures.
A Polygon
has an interior that is a
connected point set.
A Polygon
may have holes. The exterior of
a Polygon
with holes is not connected.
Each hole defines a connected component of the exterior.
The preceding assertions make a Polygon
a
simple geometry.
A GeometryCollection
is a geometry that is a
collection of one or more geometries of any class.
All the elements in a GeometryCollection
must
be in the same Spatial Reference System (that is, in the same
coordinate system). There are no other constraints on the
elements of a GeometryCollection
, although
the subclasses of GeometryCollection
described in the following sections may restrict membership.
Restrictions may be based on:
Element type (for example, a MultiPoint
may contain only Point
elements)
Dimension
Constraints on the degree of spatial overlap between elements
A MultiPoint
is a geometry collection
composed of Point
elements. The points are
not connected or ordered in any way.
MultiPoint
Examples
On a world map, a MultiPoint
could
represent a chain of small islands.
On a city map, a MultiPoint
could
represent the outlets for a ticket office.
MultiPoint
Properties
A MultiPoint
is a zerodimensional
geometry.
A MultiPoint
is simple if no two of its
Point
values are equal (have identical
coordinate values).
The boundary of a MultiPoint
is the empty
set.
A MultiCurve
is a geometry collection
composed of Curve
elements.
MultiCurve
is a noninstantiable class.
MultiCurve
Properties
A MultiCurve
is a onedimensional
geometry.
A MultiCurve
is simple if and only if all
of its elements are simple; the only intersections between
any two elements occur at points that are on the boundaries
of both elements.
A MultiCurve
boundary is obtained by
applying the “mod 2 union rule” (also known as
the “oddeven rule”): A point is in the
boundary of a MultiCurve
if it is in the
boundaries of an odd number of MultiCurve
elements.
A MultiCurve
is closed if all of its
elements are closed.
The boundary of a closed MultiCurve
is
always empty.
A MultiLineString
is a
MultiCurve
geometry collection composed of
LineString
elements.
MultiLineString
Examples
On a region map, a MultiLineString
could
represent a river system or a highway system.
A MultiSurface
is a geometry collection
composed of surface elements. MultiSurface
is
a noninstantiable class. Its only instantiable subclass is
MultiPolygon
.
MultiSurface
Assertions
Two MultiSurface
surfaces have no
interiors that intersect.
Two MultiSurface
elements have boundaries
that intersect at most at a finite number of points.
A MultiPolygon
is a
MultiSurface
object composed of
Polygon
elements.
MultiPolygon
Examples
On a region map, a MultiPolygon
could
represent a system of lakes.
MultiPolygon
Assertions
A MultiPolygon
has no two
Polygon
elements with interiors that
intersect.
A MultiPolygon
has no two
Polygon
elements that cross (crossing is
also forbidden by the previous assertion), or that touch at
an infinite number of points.
A MultiPolygon
may not have cut lines,
spikes, or punctures. A MultiPolygon
is a
regular, closed point set.
A MultiPolygon
that has more than one
Polygon
has an interior that is not
connected. The number of connected components of the
interior of a MultiPolygon
is equal to
the number of Polygon
values in the
MultiPolygon
.
MultiPolygon
Properties
A MultiPolygon
is a twodimensional
geometry.
A MultiPolygon
boundary is a set of
closed curves (LineString
values)
corresponding to the boundaries of its
Polygon
elements.
Each Curve
in the boundary of the
MultiPolygon
is in the boundary of
exactly one Polygon
element.
Every Curve
in the boundary of an
Polygon
element is in the boundary of the
MultiPolygon
.
This section describes the standard spatial data formats that are used to represent geometry objects in queries. They are:
WellKnown Text (WKT) format
WellKnown Binary (WKB) format
Internally, MySQL stores geometry values in a format that is not identical to either WKT or WKB format.
The WellKnown Text (WKT) representation of Geometry is designed to exchange geometry data in ASCII form.
Examples of WKT representations of geometry objects:
A Point
:
POINT(15 20)
Note that point coordinates are specified with no separating comma.
A LineString
with four points:
LINESTRING(0 0, 10 10, 20 25, 50 60)
Note that point coordinate pairs are separated by commas.
A Polygon
with one exterior ring and one
interior ring:
POLYGON((0 0,10 0,10 10,0 10,0 0),(5 5,7 5,7 7,5 7, 5 5))
A MultiPoint
with three
Point
values:
MULTIPOINT(0 0, 20 20, 60 60)
A MultiLineString
with two
LineString
values:
MULTILINESTRING((10 10, 20 20), (15 15, 30 15))
A MultiPolygon
with two
Polygon
values:
MULTIPOLYGON(((0 0,10 0,10 10,0 10,0 0)),((5 5,7 5,7 7,5 7, 5 5)))
A GeometryCollection
consisting of two
Point
values and one
LineString
:
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(POINT(10 10), POINT(30 30), LINESTRING(15 15, 20 20))
A BackusNaur grammar that specifies the formal production rules for writing WKT values can be found in the OpenGIS specification document referenced near the beginning of this chapter.
The WellKnown Binary (WKB) representation for geometric values is defined by the OpenGIS specification. It is also defined in the ISO SQL/MM Part 3: Spatial standard.
WKB is used to exchange geometry data as binary streams
represented by BLOB
values containing
geometric WKB information.
WKB uses onebyte unsigned integers, fourbyte unsigned integers, and eightbyte doubleprecision numbers (IEEE 754 format). A byte is eight bits.
For example, a WKB value that corresponds to POINT(1
1)
consists of this sequence of 21 bytes (each
represented here by two hex digits):
0101000000000000000000F03F000000000000F03F
The sequence may be broken down into these components:
Byte order : 01 WKB type : 01000000 X : 000000000000F03F Y : 000000000000F03F
Component representation is as follows:
The byte order may be either 0 or 1 to indicate littleendian or bigendian storage. The littleendian and bigendian byte orders are also known as Network Data Representation (NDR) and External Data Representation (XDR), respectively.
The WKB type is a code that indicates the geometry type.
Values from 1 through 7 indicate Point
,
LineString
, Polygon
,
MultiPoint
,
MultiLineString
,
MultiPolygon
, and
GeometryCollection
.
A Point
value has X and Y coordinates,
each represented as a doubleprecision value.
WKB values for more complex geometry values are represented by more complex data structures, as detailed in the OpenGIS specification.
This section describes the data types you can use for representing spatial data in MySQL, and the functions available for creating and retrieving spatial values.
MySQL has data types that correspond to OpenGIS classes. Some of these types hold single geometry values:
GEOMETRY
POINT
LINESTRING
POLYGON
GEOMETRY
can store geometry values of any
type. The other singlevalue types (POINT
,
LINESTRING
, and POLYGON
)
restrict their values to a particular geometry type.
The other data types hold collections of values:
MULTIPOINT
MULTILINESTRING
MULTIPOLYGON
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION
can store a collection of
objects of any type. The other collection types
(MULTIPOINT
,
MULTILINESTRING
,
MULTIPOLYGON
, and
GEOMETRYCOLLECTION
) restrict collection
members to those having a particular geometry type.
This section describes how to create spatial values using WellKnown Text and WellKnown Binary functions that are defined in the OpenGIS standard, and using MySQLspecific functions.
MySQL provides a number of functions that take as input parameters a WellKnown Text representation and, optionally, a spatial reference system identifier (SRID). They return the corresponding geometry.
GeomFromText()
accepts a WKT of any
geometry type as its first argument. An implementation also
provides typespecific construction functions for construction
of geometry values of each geometry type.
GeomCollFromText(
,
wkt
[,srid
])GeometryCollectionFromText(
wkt
[,srid
])
Constructs a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION
value
using its WKT representation and SRID.
GeomFromText(
,
wkt
[,srid
])GeometryFromText(
wkt
[,srid
])
Constructs a geometry value of any type using its WKT representation and SRID.
LineFromText(
,
wkt
[,srid
])LineStringFromText(
wkt
[,srid
])
Constructs a LINESTRING
value using its
WKT representation and SRID.
MLineFromText(
,
wkt
[,srid
])MultiLineStringFromText(
wkt
[,srid
])
Constructs a MULTILINESTRING
value
using its WKT representation and SRID.
MPointFromText(
,
wkt
[,srid
])MultiPointFromText(
wkt
[,srid
])
Constructs a MULTIPOINT
value using its
WKT representation and SRID.
MPolyFromText(
,
wkt
[,srid
])MultiPolygonFromText(
wkt
[,srid
])
Constructs a MULTIPOLYGON
value using
its WKT representation and SRID.
Constructs a POINT
value using its WKT
representation and SRID.
PolyFromText(
,
wkt
[,srid
])PolygonFromText(
wkt
[,srid
])
Constructs a POLYGON
value using its
WKT representation and SRID.
The OpenGIS specification also defines the following optional
functions, which MySQL does not implement. These functions
construct Polygon
or
MultiPolygon
values based on the WKT
representation of a collection of rings or closed
LineString
values. These values may
intersect.
Constructs a MultiPolygon
value from a
MultiLineString
value in WKT format
containing an arbitrary collection of closed
LineString
values.
Constructs a Polygon
value from a
MultiLineString
value in WKT format
containing an arbitrary collection of closed
LineString
values.
MySQL provides a number of functions that take as input
parameters a BLOB
containing a WellKnown
Binary representation and, optionally, a spatial reference
system identifier (SRID). They return the corresponding
geometry.
GeomFromWKB()
accepts a WKB of any geometry
type as its first argument. An implementation also provides
typespecific construction functions for construction of
geometry values of each geometry type.
GeomCollFromWKB(
,
wkb
[,srid
])GeometryCollectionFromWKB(
wkb
[,srid
])
Constructs a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION
value
using its WKB representation and SRID.
GeomFromWKB(
,
wkb
[,srid
])GeometryFromWKB(
wkb
[,srid
])
Constructs a geometry value of any type using its WKB representation and SRID.
LineFromWKB(
,
wkb
[,srid
])LineStringFromWKB(
wkb
[,srid
])
Constructs a LINESTRING
value using its
WKB representation and SRID.
MLineFromWKB(
,
wkb
[,srid
])MultiLineStringFromWKB(
wkb
[,srid
])
Constructs a MULTILINESTRING
value
using its WKB representation and SRID.
MPointFromWKB(
,
wkb
[,srid
])MultiPointFromWKB(
wkb
[,srid
])
Constructs a MULTIPOINT
value using its
WKB representation and SRID.
MPolyFromWKB(
,
wkb
[,srid
])MultiPolygonFromWKB(
wkb
[,srid
])
Constructs a MULTIPOLYGON
value using
its WKB representation and SRID.
Constructs a POINT
value using its WKB
representation and SRID.
PolyFromWKB(
,
wkb
[,srid
])PolygonFromWKB(
wkb
[,srid
])
Constructs a POLYGON
value using its
WKB representation and SRID.
The OpenGIS specification also describes optional functions
for constructing Polygon
or
MultiPolygon
values based on the WKB
representation of a collection of rings or closed
LineString
values. These values may
intersect. MySQL does not implement these functions:
Constructs a MultiPolygon
value from a
MultiLineString
value in WKB format
containing an arbitrary collection of closed
LineString
values.
Constructs a Polygon
value from a
MultiLineString
value in WKB format
containing an arbitrary collection of closed
LineString
values.
MySQL provides a set of useful nonstandard functions for
creating geometry WKB representations. The functions described
in this section are MySQL extensions to the OpenGIS
specification. The results of these functions are
BLOB
values containing WKB representations
of geometry values with no SRID. The results of these
functions can be substituted as the first argument for any
function in the GeomFromWKB()
function
family.
Constructs a WKB GeometryCollection
. If
any argument is not a wellformed WKB representation of a
geometry, the return value is NULL
.
Constructs a WKB LineString
value from
a number of WKB Point
arguments. If any
argument is not a WKB Point
, the return
value is NULL
. If the number of
Point
arguments is less than two, the
return value is NULL
.
Constructs a WKB MultiLineString
value
using WKB LineString
arguments. If any
argument is not a WKB LineString
, the
return value is NULL
.
Constructs a WKB MultiPoint
value using
WKB Point
arguments. If any argument is
not a WKB Point
, the return value is
NULL
.
Constructs a WKB MultiPolygon
value
from a set of WKB Polygon
arguments. If
any argument is not a WKB Polygon
, the
return value is NULL
.
Constructs a WKB Point
using its
coordinates.
Constructs a WKB Polygon
value from a
number of WKB LineString
arguments. If
any argument does not represent the WKB of a
LinearRing
(that is, not a closed and
simple LineString
) the return value is
NULL
.
MySQL provides a standard way of creating spatial columns for
geometry types, for example, with CREATE
TABLE
or ALTER TABLE
. Currently,
spatial columns are supported for MyISAM
,
InnoDB
, NDB
,
BDB
, and ARCHIVE
tables.
(Support for storage engines other than
MyISAM
was added in MySQL 5.0.16.) See also
the annotations about spatial indexes under
Section 16.6.1, “Creating Spatial Indexes”.
Use the CREATE TABLE
statement to create
a table with a spatial column:
CREATE TABLE geom (g GEOMETRY);
Use the ALTER TABLE
statement to add or
drop a spatial column to or from an existing table:
ALTER TABLE geom ADD pt POINT; ALTER TABLE geom DROP pt;
After you have created spatial columns, you can populate them with spatial data.
Values should be stored in internal geometry format, but you can convert them to that format from either WellKnown Text (WKT) or WellKnown Binary (WKB) format. The following examples demonstrate how to insert geometry values into a table by converting WKT values into internal geometry format:
Perform the conversion directly in the
INSERT
statement:
INSERT INTO geom VALUES (GeomFromText('POINT(1 1)')); SET @g = 'POINT(1 1)'; INSERT INTO geom VALUES (GeomFromText(@g));
Perform the conversion prior to the
INSERT
:
SET @g = GeomFromText('POINT(1 1)'); INSERT INTO geom VALUES (@g);
The following examples insert more complex geometries into the table:
SET @g = 'LINESTRING(0 0,1 1,2 2)'; INSERT INTO geom VALUES (GeomFromText(@g)); SET @g = 'POLYGON((0 0,10 0,10 10,0 10,0 0),(5 5,7 5,7 7,5 7, 5 5))'; INSERT INTO geom VALUES (GeomFromText(@g)); SET @g = 'GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(POINT(1 1),LINESTRING(0 0,1 1,2 2,3 3,4 4))'; INSERT INTO geom VALUES (GeomFromText(@g));
The preceding examples all use GeomFromText()
to create geometry values. You can also use typespecific
functions:
SET @g = 'POINT(1 1)'; INSERT INTO geom VALUES (PointFromText(@g)); SET @g = 'LINESTRING(0 0,1 1,2 2)'; INSERT INTO geom VALUES (LineStringFromText(@g)); SET @g = 'POLYGON((0 0,10 0,10 10,0 10,0 0),(5 5,7 5,7 7,5 7, 5 5))'; INSERT INTO geom VALUES (PolygonFromText(@g)); SET @g = 'GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(POINT(1 1),LINESTRING(0 0,1 1,2 2,3 3,4 4))'; INSERT INTO geom VALUES (GeomCollFromText(@g));
Note that if a client application program wants to use WKB representations of geometry values, it is responsible for sending correctly formed WKB in queries to the server. However, there are several ways of satisfying this requirement. For example:
Inserting a POINT(1 1)
value with hex
literal syntax:
mysql>INSERT INTO geom VALUES
>(GeomFromWKB(0x0101000000000000000000F03F000000000000F03F));
An ODBC application can send a WKB representation, binding
it to a placeholder using an argument of
BLOB
type:
INSERT INTO geom VALUES (GeomFromWKB(?))
Other programming interfaces may support a similar placeholder mechanism.
In a C program, you can escape a binary value using
mysql_real_escape_string()
and include
the result in a query string that is sent to the server. See
Section 22.2.3.52, “mysql_real_escape_string()
”.
Geometry values stored in a table can be fetched in internal format. You can also convert them into WKT or WKB format.
Fetching spatial data in internal format:
Fetching geometry values using internal format can be useful in tabletotable transfers:
CREATE TABLE geom2 (g GEOMETRY) SELECT g FROM geom;
Fetching spatial data in WKT format:
The AsText()
function converts a geometry
from internal format into a WKT string.
SELECT AsText(g) FROM geom;
Fetching spatial data in WKB format:
The AsBinary()
function converts a
geometry from internal format into a BLOB
containing the WKB value.
SELECT AsBinary(g) FROM geom;
Geometry
FunctionsAfter populating spatial columns with values, you are ready to query and analyze them. MySQL provides a set of functions to perform various operations on spatial data. These functions can be grouped into four major categories according to the type of operation they perform:
Functions that convert geometries between various formats
Functions that provide access to qualitative or quantitative properties of a geometry
Functions that describe relations between two geometries
Functions that create new geometries from existing ones
Spatial analysis functions can be used in many contexts, such as:
Any interactive SQL program, such as mysql or MySQL Query Browser
Application programs written in any language that supports a MySQL client API
MySQL supports the following functions for converting geometry values between internal format and either WKT or WKB format:
Converts a value in internal geometry format to its WKB representation and returns the binary result.
SELECT AsBinary(g) FROM geom;
Converts a value in internal geometry format to its WKT representation and returns the string result.
mysql>SET @g = 'LineString(1 1,2 2,3 3)';
mysql>SELECT AsText(GeomFromText(@g));
++  AsText(GeomFromText(@g))  ++  LINESTRING(1 1,2 2,3 3)  ++
Converts a string value from its WKT representation into
internal geometry format and returns the result. A number of
typespecific functions are also supported, such as
PointFromText()
and
LineFromText()
. See
Section 16.4.2.1, “Creating Geometry Values Using WKT Functions”.
Converts a binary value from its WKB representation into
internal geometry format and returns the result. A number of
typespecific functions are also supported, such as
PointFromWKB()
and
LineFromWKB()
. See
Section 16.4.2.2, “Creating Geometry Values Using WKB Functions”.
Each function that belongs to this group takes a geometry value
as its argument and returns some quantitative or qualitative
property of the geometry. Some functions restrict their argument
type. Such functions return NULL
if the
argument is of an incorrect geometry type. For example,
Area()
returns NULL
if the
object type is neither Polygon
nor
MultiPolygon
.
The functions listed in this section do not restrict their argument and accept a geometry value of any type.
Returns the inherent dimension of the geometry value
g
. The result can be –1,
0, 1, or 2. The meaning of these values is given in
Section 16.2.2, “Class Geometry
”.
mysql> SELECT Dimension(GeomFromText('LineString(1 1,2 2)'));
++
 Dimension(GeomFromText('LineString(1 1,2 2)')) 
++
 1 
++
Returns the Minimum Bounding Rectangle (MBR) for the
geometry value g
. The result is
returned as a Polygon
value.
The polygon is defined by the corner points of the bounding box:
POLYGON((MINX MINY, MAXX MINY, MAXX MAXY, MINX MAXY, MINX MINY))
mysql> SELECT AsText(Envelope(GeomFromText('LineString(1 1,2 2)')));
++
 AsText(Envelope(GeomFromText('LineString(1 1,2 2)'))) 
++
 POLYGON((1 1,2 1,2 2,1 2,1 1)) 
++
Returns as a string the name of the geometry type of which
the geometry instance g
is a
member. The name corresponds to one of the instantiable
Geometry
subclasses.
mysql> SELECT GeometryType(GeomFromText('POINT(1 1)'));
++
 GeometryType(GeomFromText('POINT(1 1)')) 
++
 POINT 
++
Returns an integer indicating the Spatial Reference System
ID for the geometry value g
.
In MySQL, the SRID value is just an integer associated with the geometry value. All calculations are done assuming Euclidean (planar) geometry.
mysql> SELECT SRID(GeomFromText('LineString(1 1,2 2)',101));
++
 SRID(GeomFromText('LineString(1 1,2 2)',101)) 
++
 101 
++
The OpenGIS specification also defines the following functions, which MySQL does not implement:
Returns a geometry that is the closure of the
combinatorial boundary of the geometry value
g
.
Returns 1 if the geometry value
g
is the empty geometry, 0 if
it is not empty, and –1 if the argument is
NULL
. If the geometry is empty, it
represents the empty point set.
Currently, this function is a placeholder and should not be used. If implemented, its behavior will be as described in the next paragraph.
Returns 1 if the geometry value
g
has no anomalous geometric
points, such as selfintersection or selftangency.
IsSimple()
returns 0 if the argument is
not simple, and –1 if it is NULL
.
The description of each instantiable geometric class given earlier in the chapter includes the specific conditions that cause an instance of that class to be classified as not simple. (See Section 16.2.1, “The Geometry Class Hierarchy”.)
A Point
consists of X and Y coordinates,
which may be obtained using the following functions:
Returns the Xcoordinate value for the point
p
as a doubleprecision number.
mysql>SET @pt = 'Point(56.7 53.34)';
mysql>SELECT X(GeomFromText(@pt));
++  X(GeomFromText(@pt))  ++  56.7  ++
Returns the Ycoordinate value for the point
p
as a doubleprecision number.
mysql>SET @pt = 'Point(56.7 53.34)';
mysql>SELECT Y(GeomFromText(@pt));
++  Y(GeomFromText(@pt))  ++  53.34  ++
A LineString
consists of
Point
values. You can extract particular
points of a LineString
, count the number of
points that it contains, or obtain its length.
Returns the Point
that is the endpoint
of the LineString
value
ls
.
mysql>SET @ls = 'LineString(1 1,2 2,3 3)';
mysql>SELECT AsText(EndPoint(GeomFromText(@ls)));
++  AsText(EndPoint(GeomFromText(@ls)))  ++  POINT(3 3)  ++
Returns as a doubleprecision number the length of the
LineString
value
ls
in its associated spatial
reference.
mysql>SET @ls = 'LineString(1 1,2 2,3 3)';
mysql>SELECT GLength(GeomFromText(@ls));
++  GLength(GeomFromText(@ls))  ++  2.8284271247462  ++
GLength()
is a nonstandard name. It
corresponds to the OpenGIS Length()
function.
Returns the number of Point
objects in
the LineString
value
ls
.
mysql>SET @ls = 'LineString(1 1,2 2,3 3)';
mysql>SELECT NumPoints(GeomFromText(@ls));
++  NumPoints(GeomFromText(@ls))  ++  3  ++
Returns the N
th
Point
in the
Linestring
value
ls
. Points are numbered
beginning with 1.
mysql>SET @ls = 'LineString(1 1,2 2,3 3)';
mysql>SELECT AsText(PointN(GeomFromText(@ls),2));
++  AsText(PointN(GeomFromText(@ls),2))  ++  POINT(2 2)  ++
Returns the Point
that is the start
point of the LineString
value
ls
.
mysql>SET @ls = 'LineString(1 1,2 2,3 3)';
mysql>SELECT AsText(StartPoint(GeomFromText(@ls)));
++  AsText(StartPoint(GeomFromText(@ls)))  ++  POINT(1 1)  ++
The OpenGIS specification also defines the following function, which MySQL does not implement:
Returns as a doubleprecision number the length of the
MultiLineString
value
mls
. The length of
mls
is equal to the sum of the
lengths of its elements.
mysql>SET @mls = 'MultiLineString((1 1,2 2,3 3),(4 4,5 5))';
mysql>SELECT GLength(GeomFromText(@mls));
++  GLength(GeomFromText(@mls))  ++  4.2426406871193  ++
GLength()
is a nonstandard name. It
corresponds to the OpenGIS Length()
function.
Returns 1 if the MultiLineString
value
mls
is closed (that is, the
StartPoint()
and
EndPoint()
values are the same for each
LineString
in
mls
). Returns 0 if
mls
is not closed, and –1
if it is NULL
.
mysql>SET @mls = 'MultiLineString((1 1,2 2,3 3),(4 4,5 5))';
mysql>SELECT IsClosed(GeomFromText(@mls));
++  IsClosed(GeomFromText(@mls))  ++  0  ++
Returns as a doubleprecision number the area of the
Polygon
value
poly
, as measured in its
spatial reference system.
mysql>SET @poly = 'Polygon((0 0,0 3,3 0,0 0),(1 1,1 2,2 1,1 1))';
mysql>SELECT Area(GeomFromText(@poly));
++  Area(GeomFromText(@poly))  ++  4  ++
Returns the exterior ring of the
Polygon
value
poly
as a
LineString
.
mysql>SET @poly =
>'Polygon((0 0,0 3,3 3,3 0,0 0),(1 1,1 2,2 2,2 1,1 1))';
mysql>SELECT AsText(ExteriorRing(GeomFromText(@poly)));
++  AsText(ExteriorRing(GeomFromText(@poly)))  ++  LINESTRING(0 0,0 3,3 3,3 0,0 0)  ++
Returns the N
th interior ring
for the Polygon
value
poly
as a
LineString
. Rings are numbered
beginning with 1.
mysql>SET @poly =
>'Polygon((0 0,0 3,3 3,3 0,0 0),(1 1,1 2,2 2,2 1,1 1))';
mysql>SELECT AsText(InteriorRingN(GeomFromText(@poly),1));
++  AsText(InteriorRingN(GeomFromText(@poly),1))  ++  LINESTRING(1 1,1 2,2 2,2 1,1 1)  ++
Returns the number of interior rings in the
Polygon
value
poly
.
mysql>SET @poly =
>'Polygon((0 0,0 3,3 3,3 0,0 0),(1 1,1 2,2 2,2 1,1 1))';
mysql>SELECT NumInteriorRings(GeomFromText(@poly));
++  NumInteriorRings(GeomFromText(@poly))  ++  1  ++
Returns as a doubleprecision number the area of the
MultiPolygon
value
mpoly
, as measured in its
spatial reference system.
mysql>SET @mpoly =
>'MultiPolygon(((0 0,0 3,3 3,3 0,0 0),(1 1,1 2,2 2,2 1,1 1)))';
mysql>SELECT Area(GeomFromText(@mpoly));
++  Area(GeomFromText(@mpoly))  ++  8  ++
The OpenGIS specification also defines the following functions, which MySQL does not implement:
Returns the N
th geometry in
the GeometryCollection
value
gc
. Geometries are numbered
beginning with 1.
mysql>SET @gc = 'GeometryCollection(Point(1 1),LineString(2 2, 3 3))';
mysql>SELECT AsText(GeometryN(GeomFromText(@gc),1));
++  AsText(GeometryN(GeomFromText(@gc),1))  ++  POINT(1 1)  ++
Returns the number of geometries in the
GeometryCollection
value
gc
.
mysql>SET @gc = 'GeometryCollection(Point(1 1),LineString(2 2, 3 3))';
mysql>SELECT NumGeometries(GeomFromText(@gc));
++  NumGeometries(GeomFromText(@gc))  ++  2  ++
Section 16.5.2, “Geometry
Functions”, discusses
several functions that construct new geometries from existing
ones. See that section for descriptions of these functions:
Envelope(
g
)
StartPoint(
ls
)
EndPoint(
ls
)
PointN(
ls
,N
)
ExteriorRing(
poly
)
InteriorRingN(
poly
,N
)
GeometryN(
gc
,N
)
OpenGIS proposes a number of other functions that can produce geometries. They are designed to implement spatial operators.
These functions are not implemented in MySQL. They may appear in future releases.
Returns a geometry that represents all points whose
distance from the geometry value
g
is less than or equal to a
distance of d
.
Returns a geometry that represents the convex hull of the
geometry value g
.
Returns a geometry that represents the point set
difference of the geometry value
g1
with
g2
.
Returns a geometry that represents the point set
intersection of the geometry values
g1
with
g2
.
Returns a geometry that represents the point set symmetric
difference of the geometry value
g1
with
g2
.
Returns a geometry that represents the point set union of
the geometry values g1
and
g2
.
The functions described in these sections take two geometries as input parameters and return a qualitative or quantitative relation between them.
MySQL provides several functions that test relations between
minimal bounding rectangles of two geometries
g1
and g2
. The return
values 1 and 0 indicate true and false, respectively.
Returns 1 or 0 to indicate whether the Minimum Bounding
Rectangle of g1
contains the
Minimum Bounding Rectangle of g2
.
mysql>SET @g1 = GeomFromText('Polygon((0 0,0 3,3 3,3 0,0 0))');
mysql>SET @g2 = GeomFromText('Point(1 1)');
mysql>SELECT MBRContains(@g1,@g2), MBRContains(@g2,@g1);
++  MBRContains(@g1,@g2)  MBRContains(@g2,@g1)  +++  1  0  +++
Returns 1 or 0 to indicate whether the Minimum Bounding
Rectangles of the two geometries
g1
and
g2
are disjoint (do not
intersect).
Returns 1 or 0 to indicate whether the Minimum Bounding
Rectangles of the two geometries
g1
and
g2
are the same.
Returns 1 or 0 to indicate whether the Minimum Bounding
Rectangles of the two geometries
g1
and
g2
intersect.
Returns 1 or 0 to indicate whether the Minimum Bounding
Rectangles of the two geometries
g1
and
g2
overlap.
Returns 1 or 0 to indicate whether the Minimum Bounding
Rectangles of the two geometries
g1
and
g2
touch.
Returns 1 or 0 to indicate whether the Minimum Bounding
Rectangle of g1
is within the
Minimum Bounding Rectangle of g2
.
mysql>SET @g1 = GeomFromText('Polygon((0 0,0 3,3 3,3 0,0 0))');
mysql>SET @g2 = GeomFromText('Polygon((0 0,0 5,5 5,5 0,0 0))');
mysql>SELECT MBRWithin(@g1,@g2), MBRWithin(@g2,@g1);
+++  MBRWithin(@g1,@g2)  MBRWithin(@g2,@g1)  +++  1  0  +++
The OpenGIS specification defines the following functions. They
test the relationship between two geometry values
g1
and g2
.
Currently, MySQL does not implement these functions according to
the specification. Those that are implemented return the same
result as the corresponding MBRbased functions. This includes
functions in the following list other than
Distance()
and Related()
.
These functions may be implemented in future releases with full support for spatial analysis, not just MBRbased support.
The return values 1 and 0 indicate true and false, respectively.
Returns 1 or 0 to indicate whether
g1
completely contains
g2
.
Returns 1 if g1
spatially crosses
g2
. Returns
NULL
if g1
is a
Polygon
or a
MultiPolygon
, or if
g2
is a Point
or a MultiPoint
. Otherwise, returns 0.
The term spatially crosses denotes a spatial relation between two given geometries that has the following properties:
The two geometries intersect
Their intersection results in a geometry that has a dimension that is one less than the maximum dimension of the two given geometries
Their intersection is not equal to either of the two given geometries
Returns 1 or 0 to indicate whether
g1
is spatially disjoint from
(does not intersect) g2
.
Returns as a doubleprecision number the shortest distance between any two points in the two geometries.
Returns 1 or 0 to indicate whether
g1
is spatially equal to
g2
.
Returns 1 or 0 to indicate whether
g1
spatially intersects
g2
.
Returns 1 or 0 to indicate whether
g1
spatially overlaps
g2
. The term spatially
overlaps is used if two geometries intersect and
their intersection results in a geometry of the same
dimension but not equal to either of the given geometries.
Returns 1 or 0 to indicate whether the spatial relationship
specified by pattern_matrix
exists between g1
and
g2
. Returns –1 if the
arguments are NULL
. The pattern matrix is
a string. Its specification will be noted here if this
function is implemented.
Returns 1 or 0 to indicate whether
g1
spatially touches
g2
. Two geometries
spatially touch if the interiors of the
geometries do not intersect, but the boundary of one of the
geometries intersects either the boundary or the interior of
the other.
Returns 1 or 0 to indicate whether
g1
is spatially within
g2
.
Search operations in nonspatial databases can be optimized using indexes. This is true for spatial databases as well. With the help of a great variety of multidimensional indexing methods that have previously been designed, it is possible to optimize spatial searches. The most typical of these are:
Point queries that search for all objects that contain a given point
Region queries that search for all objects that overlap a given region
MySQL uses RTrees with quadratic splitting to index spatial columns. A spatial index is built using the MBR of a geometry. For most geometries, the MBR is a minimum rectangle that surrounds the geometries. For a horizontal or a vertical linestring, the MBR is a rectangle degenerated into the linestring. For a point, the MBR is a rectangle degenerated into the point.
It is also possible to create normal indexes on spatial columns.
Beginning with MySQL 5.0.16, you must declare a prefix for any
(nonspatial) index on a spatial column excepting
POINT
columns.
MySQL can create spatial indexes using syntax similar to that
for creating regular indexes, but extended with the
SPATIAL
keyword. Currently, spatial columns
that are indexed must be declared NOT NULL
.
The following examples demonstrate how to create spatial
indexes:
With CREATE TABLE
:
CREATE TABLE geom (g GEOMETRY NOT NULL, SPATIAL INDEX(g));
With ALTER TABLE
:
ALTER TABLE geom ADD SPATIAL INDEX(g);
With CREATE INDEX
:
CREATE SPATIAL INDEX sp_index ON geom (g);
For MyISAM
tables, SPATIAL
INDEX
creates an Rtree index. For other storage
engines that support spatial indexing, SPATIAL
INDEX
creates a Btree index. A Btree index on
spatial values will be useful for exactvalue lookups, but not
for range scans.
To drop spatial indexes, use ALTER TABLE
or
DROP INDEX
:
With ALTER TABLE
:
ALTER TABLE geom DROP INDEX g;
With DROP INDEX
:
DROP INDEX sp_index ON geom;
Example: Suppose that a table geom
contains
more than 32,000 geometries, which are stored in the column
g
of type GEOMETRY
. The
table also has an AUTO_INCREMENT
column
fid
for storing object ID values.
mysql>DESCRIBE geom;
+++++++  Field  Type  Null  Key  Default  Extra  +++++++  fid  int(11)   PRI  NULL  auto_increment   g  geometry      +++++++ 2 rows in set (0.00 sec) mysql>SELECT COUNT(*) FROM geom;
++  count(*)  ++  32376  ++ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
To add a spatial index on the column g
, use
this statement:
mysql> ALTER TABLE geom ADD SPATIAL INDEX(g);
Query OK, 32376 rows affected (4.05 sec)
Records: 32376 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0
The optimizer investigates whether available spatial indexes can
be involved in the search for queries that use a function such
as MBRContains()
or
MBRWithin()
in the WHERE
clause. The following query finds all objects that are in the
given rectangle:
mysql>SET @poly =
>'Polygon((30000 15000,31000 15000,31000 16000,30000 16000,30000 15000))';
mysql>SELECT fid,AsText(g) FROM geom WHERE
>MBRContains(GeomFromText(@poly),g);
+++  fid  AsText(g)  +++  21  LINESTRING(30350.4 15828.8,30350.6 15845,30333.8 15845,30 ...   22  LINESTRING(30350.6 15871.4,30350.6 15887.8,30334 15887.8, ...   23  LINESTRING(30350.6 15914.2,30350.6 15930.4,30334 15930.4, ...   24  LINESTRING(30290.2 15823,30290.2 15839.4,30273.4 15839.4, ...   25  LINESTRING(30291.4 15866.2,30291.6 15882.4,30274.8 15882. ...   26  LINESTRING(30291.6 15918.2,30291.6 15934.4,30275 15934.4, ...   249  LINESTRING(30337.8 15938.6,30337.8 15946.8,30320.4 15946. ...   1  LINESTRING(30250.4 15129.2,30248.8 15138.4,30238.2 15136. ...   2  LINESTRING(30220.2 15122.8,30217.2 15137.8,30207.6 15136, ...   3  LINESTRING(30179 15114.4,30176.6 15129.4,30167 15128,3016 ...   4  LINESTRING(30155.2 15121.4,30140.4 15118.6,30142 15109,30 ...   5  LINESTRING(30192.4 15085,30177.6 15082.2,30179.2 15072.4, ...   6  LINESTRING(30244 15087,30229 15086.2,30229.4 15076.4,3024 ...   7  LINESTRING(30200.6 15059.4,30185.6 15058.6,30186 15048.8, ...   10  LINESTRING(30179.6 15017.8,30181 15002.8,30190.8 15003.6, ...   11  LINESTRING(30154.2 15000.4,30168.6 15004.8,30166 15014.2, ...   13  LINESTRING(30105 15065.8,30108.4 15050.8,30118 15053,3011 ...   154  LINESTRING(30276.2 15143.8,30261.4 15141,30263 15131.4,30 ...   155  LINESTRING(30269.8 15084,30269.4 15093.4,30258.6 15093,30 ...   157  LINESTRING(30128.2 15011,30113.2 15010.2,30113.6 15000.4, ...  +++ 20 rows in set (0.00 sec)
Use EXPLAIN
to check the way this query is
executed (the id
column has been removed so
the output better fits the page):
mysql>SET @poly =
>'Polygon((30000 15000,31000 15000,31000 16000,30000 16000,30000 15000))';
mysql>EXPLAIN SELECT fid,AsText(g) FROM geom WHERE
>MBRContains(GeomFromText(@poly),g)\G
*************************** 1. row *************************** id: 1 select_type: SIMPLE table: geom type: range possible_keys: g key: g key_len: 32 ref: NULL rows: 50 Extra: Using where 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
Check what would happen without a spatial index:
mysql>SET @poly =
>'Polygon((30000 15000,31000 15000,31000 16000,30000 16000,30000 15000))';
mysql>EXPLAIN SELECT fid,AsText(g) FROM g IGNORE INDEX (g) WHERE
>MBRContains(GeomFromText(@poly),g)\G
*************************** 1. row *************************** id: 1 select_type: SIMPLE table: geom type: ALL possible_keys: NULL key: NULL key_len: NULL ref: NULL rows: 32376 Extra: Using where 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
Executing the SELECT
statement without the
spatial index yields the same result but causes the execution
time to rise from 0.00 seconds to 0.46 seconds:
mysql>SET @poly =
>'Polygon((30000 15000,31000 15000,31000 16000,30000 16000,30000 15000))';
mysql>SELECT fid,AsText(g) FROM geom IGNORE INDEX (g) WHERE
>MBRContains(GeomFromText(@poly),g);
+++  fid  AsText(g)  +++  1  LINESTRING(30250.4 15129.2,30248.8 15138.4,30238.2 15136. ...   2  LINESTRING(30220.2 15122.8,30217.2 15137.8,30207.6 15136, ...   3  LINESTRING(30179 15114.4,30176.6 15129.4,30167 15128,3016 ...   4  LINESTRING(30155.2 15121.4,30140.4 15118.6,30142 15109,30 ...   5  LINESTRING(30192.4 15085,30177.6 15082.2,30179.2 15072.4, ...   6  LINESTRING(30244 15087,30229 15086.2,30229.4 15076.4,3024 ...   7  LINESTRING(30200.6 15059.4,30185.6 15058.6,30186 15048.8, ...   10  LINESTRING(30179.6 15017.8,30181 15002.8,30190.8 15003.6, ...   11  LINESTRING(30154.2 15000.4,30168.6 15004.8,30166 15014.2, ...   13  LINESTRING(30105 15065.8,30108.4 15050.8,30118 15053,3011 ...   21  LINESTRING(30350.4 15828.8,30350.6 15845,30333.8 15845,30 ...   22  LINESTRING(30350.6 15871.4,30350.6 15887.8,30334 15887.8, ...   23  LINESTRING(30350.6 15914.2,30350.6 15930.4,30334 15930.4, ...   24  LINESTRING(30290.2 15823,30290.2 15839.4,30273.4 15839.4, ...   25  LINESTRING(30291.4 15866.2,30291.6 15882.4,30274.8 15882. ...   26  LINESTRING(30291.6 15918.2,30291.6 15934.4,30275 15934.4, ...   154  LINESTRING(30276.2 15143.8,30261.4 15141,30263 15131.4,30 ...   155  LINESTRING(30269.8 15084,30269.4 15093.4,30258.6 15093,30 ...   157  LINESTRING(30128.2 15011,30113.2 15010.2,30113.6 15000.4, ...   249  LINESTRING(30337.8 15938.6,30337.8 15946.8,30320.4 15946. ...  +++ 20 rows in set (0.46 sec)
In future releases, spatial indexes may also be used for optimizing other functions. See Section 16.5.4, “Functions for Testing Spatial Relations Between Geometric Objects”.
MySQL does not yet implement the following GIS features:
Additional Metadata Views
OpenGIS specifications propose several additional metadata
views. For example, a system view named
GEOMETRY_COLUMNS
contains a description of
geometry columns, one row for each geometry column in the
database.
The OpenGIS function Length()
on
LineString
and
MultiLineString
currently should be called
in MySQL as GLength()
The problem is that there is an existing SQL function
Length()
that calculates the length of
string values, and sometimes it is not possible to distinguish
whether the function is called in a textual or spatial
context. We need either to solve this somehow, or decide on
another function name.