process command history list
/usr/bin/fc [-r][-e editor] [first [last]]
/usr/bin/fc [-l][-nr] [first [last]]
/usr/bin/fc [-s] [old=new[first]]
This shell script executes the builtin command of the same name as
implemented by the
for more information on this shell.
The fc command lists or edits and reexecutes, commands previously
entered to an interactive
The command history list references commands by number.
The first number in the list is selected arbitrarily.
The relationship of a
number to its command will not change except when the user logs in and
no other process is accessing the list, at which time the system may
reset the numbering to start the oldest retained command at another
number (usually 1).
When commands are edited (when the -l option is not specified),
the resulting lines will be entered at the end of the history list
and then reexecuted by the shell.
The fc command that caused the editing will not be
entered into the history list.
If the editor returns a non-zero exit status, this will suppress
the entry into the history list and the command reexecution.
Any command-line variable assignments or redirection operators used with
fc will affect both the fc
command itself as well as the command that results.
fc -s -- -1 2>/dev/null
reinvokes the previous command, suppressing standard error for both
fc and the previous command.
The following options are supported:
Use the editor named by editor to edit the commands.
The editor string is a utility name, subject to search via the
The value in the FCEDIT variable is used as a default when
-e is not specified.
If FCEDIT is null or unset,
will be used as the editor.
List the commands rather than invoking an editor on them.
The commands will be written in the sequence indicated by the
first and last operands, as affected by -r,
with each command preceded by the command number.
Suppress command numbers when listing with -l.
Reverse the order of the commands listed (with -l) or
edited (with neither -l nor -s).
Reexecute the command without invoking an editor.
The following operands are supported:
Select the commands to list or edit.
The number of previous commands that can be accessed is
determined by the value of the HISTSIZE variable.
The value of first or last or both will be one of the following:
A positive number representing a command number; command numbers
can be displayed with the -l option.
A negative decimal number representing the command that was executed
number of commands previously.
For example, -1 is the immediately previous command.
A string indicating the most recently entered command that
begins with that string.
If the old=new operand is not also specified
with -s, the string form of the first
operand cannot contain an embedded equal sign.
When -s is used and first
is omitted, the previous command is used.
When -s is not specified:
If last is omitted, last defaults to the previous command when
-l is specified; otherwise, it defaults to first.
If first and last are both omitted, the previous 16
commands will be listed or the previous single command will be
edited (based on the -l option).
If first and last are both present,
all of the commands from first to last will be
edited (without -l) or listed (with -l).
Editing multiple commands is accomplished by presenting to the
editor all of the commands at one time, each command starting
on a new line.
If first represents a newer command than last, the
commands will be listed or edited in reverse sequence, equivalent to using
For example, the following two sets of commands are equivalent:
fc 20 10
fc -r 10 20
fc 30 40
fc -r 40 30
When a range of commands is used, and either first or last
are strings that are not in the history list, fc
substitutes the value representing the oldest or newest command in the
list, as appropriate.
For example, if there are only ten commands in the history list,
numbered 1 to 10:
fc 1 99
edits all ten commands.
Replace the first occurrence of string old
in the commands to be reexecuted by the string new.
The following environment variables affect the execution of fc:
This variable, when expanded by the shell,
determines the default value for the -e option's
If FCEDIT is null or unset,
will be used as the editor.
Determine a pathname naming a command history file.
If the HISTFILE variable is not set, the shell will attempt to access
or create a file .sh_history in the user's home directory.
Users on windowing systems may want to have separate history
files for each window by setting HISTFILE as follows:
A decimal number representing the limit to the number of
previous commands that are accessible.
The default is 128.
Provide a default value for the internationalization variables
that are unset or null.
If LANG is unset or null, the corresponding value from the
implementation-specific default locale will be used.
If any of the internationalisation variables contains an invalid setting,
the utility will behave as if none of the variables had been defined.
If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all
the other internationalization variables.
Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes
of text data as characters (for example, single- as opposed to
multi-byte characters in arguments and input files).
Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and
contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error.
When the -l option is used to list commands, the format of
each command in the list is as follows:
If both the -l and -n options are specified,
the format of each command is:
If the command_line contains more characters than can be shown
on one display line, the lines after the first are displayed as:
When listing or editing commands, an exit value of 0 indicates
successful completion of the operation; any other exit code indicates
Otherwise, the exit status will be that of the commands executed
Since editors sometimes use file descriptors as integral parts of
their editing, redirecting their file descriptors as part of the
fc command can produce unexpected results.
For example, if
is the FCEDIT editor, the command:
fc -s | more
will not work correctly.
© 2004 The SCO Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
UnixWare 7 Release 7.1.4 - 25 April 2004