Berkeley DB Reference Guide:
Access Methods


Selecting an access method

The Berkeley DB access method implementation unavoidably interacts with each application's data set, locking requirements and data access patterns. For this reason, one access method may result in dramatically better performance for an application than another one. Applications whose data could be stored using more than one access method may want to benchmark their performance using the different candidates.

One of the strengths of Berkeley DB is that it provides multiple access methods with nearly identical interfaces to the different access methods. This means that it is simple to modify an application to use a different access method. Applications can easily benchmark the different Berkeley DB access methods against each other for their particular data set and access pattern.

Most applications choose between using the Btree or Hash access methods or between using the Queue and Recno access methods, because each of the two pairs offer similar functionality.

Hash or Btree?

The Hash and Btree access methods should be used when logical record numbers are not the primary key used for data access. (If logical record numbers are a secondary key used for data access, the Btree access method is a possible choice, as it supports simultaneous access by a key and a record number.)

Keys in Btrees are stored in sorted order and the relationship between them is defined by that sort order. For this reason, the Btree access method should be used when there is any locality of reference among keys. Locality of reference means that accessing one particular key in the Btree implies that the application is more likely to access keys near to the key being accessed, where "near" is defined by the sort order. For example, if keys are timestamps, and it is likely that a request for an 8AM timestamp will be followed by a request for a 9AM timestamp, the Btree access method is generally the right choice. Or, for example, if the keys are names, and the application will want to review all entries with the same last name, the Btree access method is again a good choice.

There is little difference in performance between the Hash and Btree access methods on small data sets, where all, or most of, the data set fits into the cache. However, when a data set is large enough that significant numbers of data pages no longer fit into the cache, then the Btree locality of reference described previously becomes important for performance reasons. For example, there is no locality of reference for the Hash access method, and so key "AAAAA" is as likely to be stored on the same database page with key "ZZZZZ" as with key "AAAAB". In the Btree access method, because items are sorted, key "AAAAA" is far more likely to be near key "AAAAB" than key "ZZZZZ". So, if the application exhibits locality of reference in its data requests, then the Btree page read into the cache to satisfy a request for key "AAAAA" is much more likely to be useful to satisfy subsequent requests from the application than the Hash page read into the cache to satisfy the same request. This means that for applications with locality of reference, the cache is generally much more effective for the Btree access method than the Hash access method, and the Btree access method will make many fewer I/O calls.

However, when a data set becomes even larger, the Hash access method can outperform the Btree access method. The reason for this is that Btrees contain more metadata pages than Hash databases. The data set can grow so large that metadata pages begin to dominate the cache for the Btree access method. If this happens, the Btree can be forced to do an I/O for each data request because the probability that any particular data page is already in the cache becomes quite small. Because the Hash access method has fewer metadata pages, its cache stays "hotter" longer in the presence of large data sets. In addition, once the data set is so large that both the Btree and Hash access methods are almost certainly doing an I/O for each random data request, the fact that Hash does not have to walk several internal pages as part of a key search becomes a performance advantage for the Hash access method as well.

Application data access patterns strongly affect all of these behaviors, for example, accessing the data by walking a cursor through the database will greatly mitigate the large data set behavior describe above because each I/O into the cache will satisfy a fairly large number of subsequent data requests.

In the absence of information on application data and data access patterns, for small data sets either the Btree or Hash access methods will suffice. For data sets larger than the cache, we normally recommend using the Btree access method. If you have truly large data, then the Hash access method may be a better choice. The db_stat utility is a useful tool for monitoring how well your cache is performing.

Queue or Recno?

The Queue or Recno access methods should be used when logical record numbers are the primary key used for data access. The advantage of the Queue access method is that it performs record level locking and for this reason supports significantly higher levels of concurrency than the Recno access method. The advantage of the Recno access method is that it supports a number of additional features beyond those supported by the Queue access method, such as variable-length records and support for backing flat-text files.

Logical record numbers can be mutable or fixed: mutable, where logical record numbers can change as records are deleted or inserted, and fixed, where record numbers never change regardless of the database operation. It is possible to store and retrieve records based on logical record numbers in the Btree access method. However, those record numbers are always mutable, and as records are deleted or inserted, the logical record number for other records in the database will change. The Queue access method always runs in fixed mode, and logical record numbers never change regardless of the database operation. The Recno access method can be configured to run in either mutable or fixed mode.

In addition, the Recno access method provides support for databases whose permanent storage is a flat text file and the database is used as a fast, temporary storage area while the data is being read or modified.


Copyright (c) 1996-2005 Sleepycat Software, Inc. - All rights reserved.