(gcc.info) VMS Misc
(gcc.info) Global Declarations
Other VMS Issues
GCC automatically arranges for `main' to return 1 by default if you
fail to specify an explicit return value. This will be interpreted by
VMS as a status code indicating a normal successful completion.
Version 1 of GCC did not provide this default.
GCC on VMS works only with the GNU assembler, GAS. You need version
1.37 or later of GAS in order to produce value debugging information for
the VMS debugger. Use the ordinary VMS linker with the object files
produced by GAS.
Under previous versions of GCC, the generated code would occasionally
give strange results when linked to the sharable `VAXCRTL' library.
Now this should work.
A caveat for use of `const' global variables: the `const' modifier
must be specified in every external declaration of the variable in all
of the source files that use that variable. Otherwise the linker will
issue warnings about conflicting attributes for the variable. Your
program will still work despite the warnings, but the variable will be
placed in writable storage.
Although the VMS linker does distinguish between upper and lower case
letters in global symbols, most VMS compilers convert all such symbols
into upper case and most run-time library routines also have upper case
names. To be able to reliably call such routines, GCC (by means of the
assembler GAS) converts global symbols into upper case like other VMS
compilers. However, since the usual practice in C is to distinguish
case, GCC (via GAS) tries to preserve usual C behavior by augmenting
each name that is not all lower case. This means truncating the name
to at most 23 characters and then adding more characters at the end
which encode the case pattern of those 23. Names which contain at
least one dollar sign are an exception; they are converted directly into
upper case without augmentation.
Name augmentation yields bad results for programs that use
precompiled libraries (such as Xlib) which were generated by another
compiler. You can use the compiler option `/NOCASE_HACK' to inhibit
augmentation; it makes external C functions and variables
case-independent as is usual on VMS. Alternatively, you could write
all references to the functions and variables in such libraries using
lower case; this will work on VMS, but is not portable to other
systems. The compiler option `/NAMES' also provides control over
global name handling.
Function and variable names are handled somewhat differently with GNU
C++. The GNU C++ compiler performs "name mangling" on function names,
which means that it adds information to the function name to describe
the data types of the arguments that the function takes. One result of
this is that the name of a function can become very long. Since the
VMS linker only recognizes the first 31 characters in a name, special
action is taken to ensure that each function and variable has a unique
name that can be represented in 31 characters.
If the name (plus a name augmentation, if required) is less than 32
characters in length, then no special action is performed. If the name
is longer than 31 characters, the assembler (GAS) will generate a hash
string based upon the function name, truncate the function name to 23
characters, and append the hash string to the truncated name. If the
`/VERBOSE' compiler option is used, the assembler will print both the
full and truncated names of each symbol that is truncated.
The `/NOCASE_HACK' compiler option should not be used when you are
compiling programs that use libg++. libg++ has several instances of
objects (i.e. `Filebuf' and `filebuf') which become indistinguishable
in a case-insensitive environment. This leads to cases where you need
to inhibit augmentation selectively (if you were using libg++ and Xlib
in the same program, for example). There is no special feature for
doing this, but you can get the result by defining a macro for each
mixed case symbol for which you wish to inhibit augmentation. The
macro should expand into the lower case equivalent of itself. For
#define StuDlyCapS studlycaps
These macro definitions can be placed in a header file to minimize
the number of changes to your source code.
(gcc.info) Global Declarations
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