(gcc.info) Register Arguments
(gcc.info) Stack Arguments
(gcc.info) Stack and Calling
(gcc.info) Scalar Return
Passing Arguments in Registers
This section describes the macros which let you control how various
types of arguments are passed in registers or how they are arranged in
`FUNCTION_ARG (CUM, MODE, TYPE, NAMED)'
A C expression that controls whether a function argument is passed
in a register, and which register.
The arguments are CUM, which summarizes all the previous
arguments; MODE, the machine mode of the argument; TYPE, the data
type of the argument as a tree node or 0 if that is not known
(which happens for C support library functions); and NAMED, which
is 1 for an ordinary argument and 0 for nameless arguments that
correspond to `...' in the called function's prototype.
The value of the expression is usually either a `reg' RTX for the
hard register in which to pass the argument, or zero to pass the
argument on the stack.
For machines like the Vax and 68000, where normally all arguments
are pushed, zero suffices as a definition.
The value of the expression can also be a `parallel' RTX. This is
used when an argument is passed in multiple locations. The mode
of the of the `parallel' should be the mode of the entire
argument. The `parallel' holds any number of `expr_list' pairs;
each one describes where part of the argument is passed. In each
`expr_list' the first operand must be a `reg' RTX for the hard
register in which to pass this part of the argument, and the mode
of the register RTX indicates how large this part of the argument
is. The second operand of the `expr_list' is a `const_int' which
gives the offset in bytes into the entire argument of where this
part starts. As a special exception the first `expr_list' in the
`parallel' RTX may have a first operand of zero. This indicates
that the bytes starting from the second operand of that
`expr_list' are stored on the stack and not held in a register.
The usual way to make the ANSI library `stdarg.h' work on a machine
where some arguments are usually passed in registers, is to cause
nameless arguments to be passed on the stack instead. This is done
by making `FUNCTION_ARG' return 0 whenever NAMED is 0.
You may use the macro `MUST_PASS_IN_STACK (MODE, TYPE)' in the
definition of this macro to determine if this argument is of a
type that must be passed in the stack. If `REG_PARM_STACK_SPACE'
is not defined and `FUNCTION_ARG' returns non-zero for such an
argument, the compiler will abort. If `REG_PARM_STACK_SPACE' is
defined, the argument will be computed in the stack and then
loaded into a register.
`MUST_PASS_IN_STACK (MODE, TYPE)'
Define as a C expression that evaluates to nonzero if we do not
know how to pass TYPE solely in registers. The file `expr.h'
defines a definition that is usually appropriate, refer to
`expr.h' for additional documentation.
`FUNCTION_INCOMING_ARG (CUM, MODE, TYPE, NAMED)'
Define this macro if the target machine has "register windows", so
that the register in which a function sees an arguments is not
necessarily the same as the one in which the caller passed the
For such machines, `FUNCTION_ARG' computes the register in which
the caller passes the value, and `FUNCTION_INCOMING_ARG' should be
defined in a similar fashion to tell the function being called
where the arguments will arrive.
If `FUNCTION_INCOMING_ARG' is not defined, `FUNCTION_ARG' serves
`FUNCTION_ARG_PARTIAL_NREGS (CUM, MODE, TYPE, NAMED)'
A C expression for the number of words, at the beginning of an
argument, must be put in registers. The value must be zero for
arguments that are passed entirely in registers or that are
entirely pushed on the stack.
On some machines, certain arguments must be passed partially in
registers and partially in memory. On these machines, typically
the first N words of arguments are passed in registers, and the
rest on the stack. If a multi-word argument (a `double' or a
structure) crosses that boundary, its first few words must be
passed in registers and the rest must be pushed. This macro tells
the compiler when this occurs, and how many of the words should go
`FUNCTION_ARG' for these arguments should return the first
register to be used by the caller for this argument; likewise
`FUNCTION_INCOMING_ARG', for the called function.
`FUNCTION_ARG_PASS_BY_REFERENCE (CUM, MODE, TYPE, NAMED)'
A C expression that indicates when an argument must be passed by
reference. If nonzero for an argument, a copy of that argument is
made in memory and a pointer to the argument is passed instead of
the argument itself. The pointer is passed in whatever way is
appropriate for passing a pointer to that type.
On machines where `REG_PARM_STACK_SPACE' is not defined, a suitable
definition of this macro might be
(CUM, MODE, TYPE, NAMED) \
MUST_PASS_IN_STACK (MODE, TYPE)
`FUNCTION_ARG_CALLEE_COPIES (CUM, MODE, TYPE, NAMED)'
If defined, a C expression that indicates when it is the called
function's responsibility to make a copy of arguments passed by
invisible reference. Normally, the caller makes a copy and passes
the address of the copy to the routine being called. When
FUNCTION_ARG_CALLEE_COPIES is defined and is nonzero, the caller
does not make a copy. Instead, it passes a pointer to the "live"
value. The called function must not modify this value. If it can
be determined that the value won't be modified, it need not make a
copy; otherwise a copy must be made.
A C type for declaring a variable that is used as the first
argument of `FUNCTION_ARG' and other related values. For some
target machines, the type `int' suffices and can hold the number
of bytes of argument so far.
There is no need to record in `CUMULATIVE_ARGS' anything about the
arguments that have been passed on the stack. The compiler has
other variables to keep track of that. For target machines on
which all arguments are passed on the stack, there is no need to
store anything in `CUMULATIVE_ARGS'; however, the data structure
must exist and should not be empty, so use `int'.
`INIT_CUMULATIVE_ARGS (CUM, FNTYPE, LIBNAME, INDIRECT)'
A C statement (sans semicolon) for initializing the variable CUM
for the state at the beginning of the argument list. The variable
has type `CUMULATIVE_ARGS'. The value of FNTYPE is the tree node
for the data type of the function which will receive the args, or 0
if the args are to a compiler support library function. The value
of INDIRECT is nonzero when processing an indirect call, for
example a call through a function pointer. The value of INDIRECT
is zero for a call to an explicitly named function, a library
function call, or when `INIT_CUMULATIVE_ARGS' is used to find
arguments for the function being compiled.
When processing a call to a compiler support library function,
LIBNAME identifies which one. It is a `symbol_ref' rtx which
contains the name of the function, as a string. LIBNAME is 0 when
an ordinary C function call is being processed. Thus, each time
this macro is called, either LIBNAME or FNTYPE is nonzero, but
never both of them at once.
`INIT_CUMULATIVE_INCOMING_ARGS (CUM, FNTYPE, LIBNAME)'
Like `INIT_CUMULATIVE_ARGS' but overrides it for the purposes of
finding the arguments for the function being compiled. If this
macro is undefined, `INIT_CUMULATIVE_ARGS' is used instead.
The value passed for LIBNAME is always 0, since library routines
with special calling conventions are never compiled with GNU CC.
The argument LIBNAME exists for symmetry with
`FUNCTION_ARG_ADVANCE (CUM, MODE, TYPE, NAMED)'
A C statement (sans semicolon) to update the summarizer variable
CUM to advance past an argument in the argument list. The values
MODE, TYPE and NAMED describe that argument. Once this is done,
the variable CUM is suitable for analyzing the *following*
argument with `FUNCTION_ARG', etc.
This macro need not do anything if the argument in question was
passed on the stack. The compiler knows how to track the amount
of stack space used for arguments without any special help.
`FUNCTION_ARG_PADDING (MODE, TYPE)'
If defined, a C expression which determines whether, and in which
direction, to pad out an argument with extra space. The value
should be of type `enum direction': either `upward' to pad above
the argument, `downward' to pad below, or `none' to inhibit
The *amount* of padding is always just enough to reach the next
multiple of `FUNCTION_ARG_BOUNDARY'; this macro does not control
This macro has a default definition which is right for most
systems. For little-endian machines, the default is to pad
upward. For big-endian machines, the default is to pad downward
for an argument of constant size shorter than an `int', and upward
`FUNCTION_ARG_BOUNDARY (MODE, TYPE)'
If defined, a C expression that gives the alignment boundary, in
bits, of an argument with the specified mode and type. If it is
not defined, `PARM_BOUNDARY' is used for all arguments.
A C expression that is nonzero if REGNO is the number of a hard
register in which function arguments are sometimes passed. This
does *not* include implicit arguments such as the static chain and
the structure-value address. On many machines, no registers can be
used for this purpose since all function arguments are pushed on
If defined, the order in which arguments are loaded into their
respective argument registers is reversed so that the last
argument is loaded first. This macro only effects arguments
passed in registers.
(gcc.info) Stack Arguments
(gcc.info) Stack and Calling
(gcc.info) Scalar Return
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